First report of the Botany Committee (1909)


Author(s): Hiern. W. P. Origin: DA Transactions
Topic(s): botany Year published: 1909
Location(s): Pages: 95-114
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REPORT of the Committee – consisting of Miss Rose E. Carr-Smith, Sir Alfred Croft, Dr. H. Humphreys, Miss C. E. Larter, Dr. H. G. Peacock, Dr. A. B. Prowse, Mr. C. E. Robinson, Miss Helen Saunders, Mr. T. Wainwright, and Mr. W. P. Hiern (Secretary), with power to add to their number – for the purpose of investigating matters connected with the Flora and Botany of Devonshire.

Edited by W. P. Hiern. (Read at Launceston, 28th July, 1909.)

QUESTIONS occasionally arise, in relation to botanical records, as to the precise delimitation between H. C. Watson’s vice-counties, III (South Devon) and IV (North Devon). In the fourth volume of his Cybele Britannica, published in 1859, Watson explained that his “South and North Devon are separated by an imaginary line, adapted to the water-shed; commencing at the Tamar, about midway between Tavistock and Launceston; passing over the ridge of Dartmoor, and joining the western canal at Tiverton”. The small map, which Watson supplied, to illustrate the lines of separation for the provinces, sub-provinces, counties, and vice-counties in England and Scotland, was drawn roughly on a linear scale about 1 to 4,000,000. The only further assistance given by him consists in the general principle that “in thus subdividing the counties any natural peculiarities were taken, or even well-marked lines traceable on maps, or findable on the actual ground; such as water-sheds, roads, canals, rivers, etc”.

In order to settle the question and to give fixity to it, the following exact definition, which is compatible with Watson’s words, and which follows the course indicated in his map, is here proposed. It has already met with the approval of some local botanists, to whom it has been submitted and who are concerned in the matter :—

The south-western end of the imaginary line is taken at the river Tamar, where the parishes of Milton Abbot and Dunterton meet; this point is about 10 1/4 kilometers distant from Tavistock, estimated in a straight line, and about 9 kilometers similarly from Launceston; the direct distance between Tavistock and Launceston is about 18 kilometers. The north-western or northern boundaries of the parishes of Milton Abbot, Brentor, and Lydford are thence successively followed, until on Dartmoor a point is reached, on the confines of Bridestowe and Sourton Common, nearly in a direct line between Great Links Tor, and Logan Rock, Stinka Tor, about 1 1/3 kilometer distant from the former and 4/5 kilometer from the latter. The line of the water-shed on Dartmoor is thence taken, by way of Kitty Tor, Amicombe Hill, Great Kneeset, and (leaving Cranmere about 1/3 kilometer distant on the north) Hangingstone Hill, Wild Tor, and Hound Tor. The western or northern boundaries of the parishes of Throwleigh, Drewsteignton, Hittisleigh, Crediton Hamlets, Sandford, Kennerleigh, Poughill, Cheriton Fitzpaine, and Cadeleigh are then in succession followed, as far as Worthy Bridge, where is touched the municipal borough and parish of Tiverton. From Worthy Bridge the middle of the road is taken by way of Seven Crosses to the town of Tiverton and to the Grand Western Canal there. The central line of the canal is thence taken to the Somerset county boundary, at the limit of the parish of Holcombe Rogus, near Brinscott.

In this manner the Barnstaple and Torrington botanical districts remain entirely in Watson’s IV (North Devon) vice-county; the South Molton, Exeter, Torquay, and Tavistock botanical districts are each partly in Watson’s III (South Devon) and IV (North Devon) vice-counties; and the Honiton and Plymouth botanical districts remain entirely in Watson’s III (South Devon) vice-county. In the Tavistock botanical district the large parish of Lydford is the only one which suffers intersection by the imaginary line separating the vice-counties III and IV. The only other botanical district, the parishes of which suffer intersection by the imaginary line, is the Exeter botanical district, and in that one the five parishes of Tiverton, Halberton, Sampford Peverell, Burlescombe, and Holcombe Rogus are so intersected; these five parishes, except part of Holcombe Rogus, are wholly drained by streams leading to the southern coast of the county.

The records of species and varieties and the rest of the notes are arranged under the eight botanical districts of the county to which they respectively relate. These districts were fully set out in the botanical chapter of the Devonshire Victoria History, Vol. I, published in 1906.

1. Barnstaple Botanical District

  • Aconitum Napellus L. West Down.
  • Radicula sylvestris Druce. Ilfracombe.
  • Sisymbrium Sophia L. Braunton (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Brassica monensis Huds. Morte-hoe (Mr. T. Wainwright).
  • Viola silvestris Kit. Berry Narbor (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Drosera longifolia L. Braunton.
  • Millegrana Radiola Druce. Morte-hoe.
  • Melilotus officinalis Lam. Braunton, Heanton Punchardon, Westleigh.
  • M. indica All. Northam (Mr. E. Vidal).
  • Ulex minor Roth. Bratton Fleming.
  • Pimpinella Saxifraga L., var. dissecta With. Barnstaple.
  • Myrrhis Odorata Scop. Bratton Fleming.
  • Anthemis nobilis L. Braunton (Mr. A. Sharland).
  • Carduus acaulos L. Braunton.
  • Tragopogon porrifolius L. Bishop’s Tawton (Mr. R. Taylor).
  • Hieracium Schmidtii Tausch, var. eustomon Lint. Ilfracombe, Berry Narbor, Countisbury, Lynton.
  • H. torticeps Dahlst. Stoke Rivers (apparently referable to this species).
  • H. scanicum Dahlst. Brendon.
  • H. sciaphilum FL, var. transiens Ley. Combe Martin.
  • H. anfractum Fr., var. cacuminatum Dahlst. Stoke Rivers.
  • H. diaphanoides Lindeb. Alwington.
    • Specimens of the hawkweeds have been submitted to the Revs. E. F. Linton and A. Ley, and their determinations are here given.
  • Centaurion pulchellum Druce. Westleigh.
  • Melampyrum pratense L., var. hians Druce. Brendon.
  • Lamium amplexicaule L. Lynton.
  • Marrubium vulgare L., var. lanatum Benth. Braunton.
  • Primula veris L. Braunton (Mr. T. Wainwright).
  • Plantago media L. Ilfracombe.
  • P. Timbali Jord. Northam.
  • Chenopodium polyspermum L. Braunton (Mr. A. Sharland).
  • Atriplex laciniata L. Morte-hoe (Mr. A. Sharland).
  • Buxus sempervirens L. Braunton.
  • Allium Scorodoprasum L. Barnstaple; garden weed.
  • Eleocharis uniglumis Schultes. Bideford.
  • Gastridium lendigerum Gaud. Braunton (Mr. A. Sharland).
  • Poa trivialis L., var. parviflora Parn. Barnstaple (Mr. A. Sharland).
  • Festuca ovina L. Ilfracombe, December, 1908; with webbed exudation caused by attack of the scale-insect, Eriopeltis festucae Sign.
  • Polypodium Phegopteris L. Woolfardisworthy, in 1907 (Rev. H. H. Harvey).
  • Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. High Bray.
  • Lycopodium Selago L. High Bray.
  • Sphagnum molle Sull., var. tenerum Braithw. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • S. subnitens R. & W. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • S. subnitens, var. virescens Warnst. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • S. subnitens, var. violascens Warnst. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • S. rubellum Wils. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • S. cymbifolium Ehrh., var. pallescens W. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
    • These Sphagna have been certified as to species and varieties by Mr. W. Ingham.
  • Schistostega osmundacea Mohr. Morte-hoe.
  • Heterocladium heteropterum B. & S., var. fallax Milde. Berry Narbor (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Hypnum fluitans L., var. gracile Boul. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Ptilidium ciliare Hampe. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Scapania gracilis Kaal. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • S. purpurascens Tayl. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Lophozia Floerkii Schiffn. Challacombe (Miss C. E. Larter).
    • These four hepatics have been determined by Mr. Symers M. Macvicar.
  • Dumortiera irrigua Nees, still flourishes in the classical station recorded by the late Dr. Ralfs (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Ceramium circinnatum J. Ag. Combe Martin (Miss C. E. Larter).

2. Torrington Botanical District

  • Clematis Vitalba L. Weare Giffard.
  • Ranunculus confusus Godr. Great Torrington.
  • Lychnis Githago Scop. St. Giles-in-the-Wood.
  • Sagina subulata Presl. Okehampton Hamlets, Belstone.
  • Hypericum elodes L. Beaford.
  • Geranium pusillum L. Sampford Courtenay (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • Millegrana Radiola Druce. Okehampton Hamlets.
  • Rhamnus Frangula L. Roborough, Holsworthy Hamlets.
  • Ulex minor Roth. Okehampton Hamlets.
  • Lathyrus montanus Bernh., var. tenuifolius (Roth.). Roborough, Beaford. –
  • Geum intermedium Ehrh. Okehampton (Mr. C. C. Mountfort).
  • Epilobium lanceolatum Seb. & Maur. Okehampton (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • Serratula tinctoria L. Great Torrington, Roborough, etc.
  • Hieracium lasiophyllum Koch. Little Torrington; this hawk-weed has been identified by the Rev. A. Ley.
  • Gentiana baltica Murb. Abbotsbickington (Rev. H. H. Harvey).
  • Orobanche major L. High Bickington.
  • Linaria repens L. Belstone (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • Mimulus moschatus Dougl. Belstone.
  • Mentha longifolia Huds. Sampford Courtenay (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • M. piperita L. Sampford Courtenay (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • Chenopodium polyspermum L. Frithelstock.
  • Atriplex angustifolia Sm. Okehampton (Messrs. J. G. & E. G. Baker).
  • Pinus sylvestris L. Okehampton (Messrs J. G. & E. G. Baker).
  • Galanthus nivalis L. Bridgerule, West (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Bridgerule, West (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • Triglochin palustre L. Great Torrington.
  • Scirpus cespitosus L. Belstone.
  • S. pauciflorus Lightf. Okehampton Hamlets.
  • S. setaceus L. Shebbear.
  • Carex pulicaris L. Beaford, Holsworthy, Little Torrington.
  • C. paniculata L. Beaford, St. Giles-in-the-Wood, etc.
  • C. Goodenovii Gay. Thornbury, Milton Damerell.
  • Agrostis canina L. Okehampton Hamlets.
  • Asplenium lanceolatum Huds. Belstone (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • Ceterach officinarum DC. Abbotsbickington (Rev. H. H. Harvey).
  • Lastrea aemula Brack. Abbotsbickington (Rev. H. H. Harvey), Holsworthy Hamlets.
  • Polypodium Phegopteris L. Pyworthy, formerly (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).
  • Osmunda regalis L. Abbotsbickington (Rev. H. H. Harvey).
  • Chara vulgaris L., var. melanopyrena H. & J. Groves. Bridgerule, West (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers).

3. South Molton Botanical District

  • Barbarea verna Aschers. Queensnympton, Rose Ash, West Anstey.
  • Coronopus didyma Sm. Zeal Monachorum.
  • Arenaria leptoclados Guss. Kingsnympton.
  • Impatiens glandulifera Royle. Coldridge, Chittlehampton, Chulmleigh.
  • Trifolium hybridum L. Chittlehampton.
  • Prunus Cerasus L. Knowstone.
  • Potentilla procumbens Sibth. Rose Ash.
  • Saxifraga umbrosa L. East Buckland; not native.
  • Petroselinum segetum Koch. Colebrooke.
  • Bupleurum rotundifolium L. West Anstey; casual.
  • Sium erectum Huds. West Buckland.
  • Galium Cruciata Scop. Newton St. Cyres.
  • Valerianella carinata Loisel. North Molton.
  • Matricaria suaveolens Buchen. Chulmleigh.
  • Leontodon hispidus L. Chittlehampton.
  • Hieracium torticeps Dahlst. Bishopsnympton, Twitchen.
  • H. sciaphilum Uechtr. Knowstone.
  • H. sciaphilum, var. transiens Ley. Twitchen, Rose Ash, Burrington.
  • H. anfractum Fr., subsp. cacuminatum Dahlst., var. barbareaefolium Lönnr. Twitchen.
  • H. umbellatum L., var. linariifolium Wallr. North Molton.
    • Specimens of the hawkweeds have been submitted to the Revs. E. F. Linton and A. Ley, and their determinations are here given.
  • Stachys palustris L., var. S. ambigua Sm. Bishopsnympton.
  • Leucojum aestivum L. Satterleigh and Warkleigh; garden-escape?
  • Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Chittlehampton.
  • Allium ursinum L. Charles, Chittlehampton, Chulmleigh.
  • Scirpus cespitosus L. Knowstone.
  • Carex divulsa Good. Chittlehampton.
  • C. hirta L. Rose Ash.
  • C. vesicaria L. Burrington.
  • Setaria glauca Beauv. South Molton.
  • Trisetum flavescens Beauv. South Molton.
  • Glyceria plicata Fr. Rose Ash.
  • Lastrea spinulosa Presl. North Molton.

Miss Helen Saunders contributes a note to illustrate the character of the weather during last winter in the neighbourhood of South Molton, which is about 500 feet above sea-level. The mild weather lasted until the end of February, with the exception of a fall of snow from 27 December to 2 January, and was followed by a few nights of frost, which checked many flowers, though some plants continued to flourish until the change of weather in March. Then it became exceedingly cold, 25° F. of frost being registered on the night of Thursday, 4 March, which is the lowest temperature recorded for many years. Nevertheless some spring flowers made an early appearance, such as Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus L. and Galanthus nivalis L.; the rare plant, Narcissus eystettensis Hort., which usually flowers about the end of the first week of April, was this year in bloom at the end of March (see Trans, XXX, p. 199).

The following plants were observed in December last: Cardamine hirsuta L.; Lychnis diurna Sibth.; Fragaria vesca L. (with ripe fruit); Potentilla Fragariastrum Ehrh.; Alchemilla vulgaris L.; Angelica sylvestris L.; Leontodon Taraxacum L.; Bellis perennis L.; Centaurea Scabiosa L.; Hypochoeris radicata L.; Lamium purpureum L.; and in January, Ranunculus Ficaria L.; Ulex europaeus L.; Petasites fragrans Presl.; Vinca minor L.; Veronica Buxbaumii Ten.; V. polita Fr.; and in February, Primula vulgaris Huds.; and Mercurialis perennis L.

4. Exeter Botanical District

  • Ranunculus floribundus Bab. Topsham.
  • R. fluitans Lam. St. Thomas.
  • Helleborus foetidus L. Tiverton (Mrs. Macalister).
  • Corydalis claviculata DC. Tiverton.
  • Thlaspi arvense L. Topsham (Mr. F. A. Brokenshire).
  • Lepidium Draba L. St. Thomas.
  • Raphanus Raphanistrum L. Topsham.
  • Silene anglica L. Christow.
  • Sagina ciliata Er. Christow
  • S. subulata Presl. Uffculme (Miss C. E. Larter), Christow.
  • Lavatera arborea L. Kenton (Mr. G. Peacock).
  • Geranium pusillum L. Tiverton, Ashton.
  • G. lucidum L. Topsham, Ashton, Heavitree.
  • Trifolium subterraneum L. Ashton.
  • Peplis Portula L. Tiverton.
  • Adoxa Moschatellina L. Tiverton, Christow, Ashton
  • Galium Cruciata Scop. Clayhanger, Morebath, Ashton.
  • G. uliginosum L. Clayhanger, Ashton.
  • G. Witheringii Sm. Exeter.
  • Valeriana dioica L. Clayhanger.
  • Erigeron acris L. Halberton, Ashton.
  • Gnaphalium sylvaticum L. Christow.
  • Matricaria suaveolens Buchen. Topsham.
  • Centaurea Cyanus L. Ashton.
  • Cuscuta europaea L. Tiverton.
  • Linaria minor Desf. Stoke Canon (Mrs. Brokenshire).
  • Mimulus Langsdorffii Donn. Uffculme (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Lycopus europaeus L. Tiverton.
  • Salvia Verbenaca L., var. with white flowers. Topsham (Mr. E. Parfitt).
  • Scutellaria galericulata L. Tiverton.
  • Cyclamen hederifolium Ait. Formerly in hedge-banks near Exeter.
  • Lysimachia Nummularia L. Tiverton.
  • Polygonum Bistorta L. Willand.
  • Orchis morio L. Ashton.
  • Listera ovata Br. Tiverton.
  • Sagittaria heterophylla Pursh, var. iscana Hiern. Exeter, St. Thomas; this aquatic herb, which was described and figured in The Journal of Botany, 1908, pp. 273–8, tab. 494, maintains its place this year.
  • Scirpus setaceus L. Ashton.
  • Carex extensa Good. Kenton.
  • Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss. Christow.
  • Ceterach officinarum DC. Ashton.
  • Osmunda regalis L. Christow.

At Mamhead still stands Boswell’s “solemn yew”. (Taxus baccata L.), a massive bulk of gnarled and deeply furrowed stem, of many centuries’ growth, crowned by a spreading mass of dense and sombre green. An interesting account, with some amusing details relating to Boswell’s association with it in the year 1775, appeared in The Field newspaper of 6 January, 1909.

5. Honiton Botanical District

  • Myosurus minimus L. Littleham and Exmouth, formerly.
  • Ranunculus parviflorus L. Budleigh Salterton, Salcombe Regis.
  • Aconitum Napellus L. Harpford.
  • Berberis vulgaris L. Sidbury.
  • Castalia alba Wood. Talaton.
  • Sagina subulata Presl. Sidmouth.
  • Arenaria leptoclados Guss. Sidmouth.
  • Alsine rupicola Hiern. Littleham and Exmouth.
  • Hypericum hirsutum L. Axminster.
  • Geranium rotundifolium L. Sidmouth, etc.
  • Ononis spinosa L. Axminster.
  • Medicago arabica, Huds. Littleham and Exmouth, Sidmouth.
  • Geum rivale L. Sidmouth.
  • Pyrus communis L. Lympstone.
  • Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. Axminster.
  • E. tetragonum L. Axminster (Mr. A. Sharland).
  • Saxifraga tridactylites L. Sidmouth.
  • Sison Amomum L. Sidmouth.
  • Sium erectum Huds. Sowton.
  • Oenanthe pimpinelloides L. Littleham and Exmouth, Lympstone, Sidmouth.
  • Torilis nodosa Gaertn. Littleham and Exmouth.
  • Asperula odorata L. Harpford.
  • Valeriana dioica L. Axmouth, Salcombe Regis.
  • Scabiosa Columbaria L. Salcombe Regis.
  • Inula vulgaris Trevisan. Sidmouth.
  • Carlina vulgaris L. Salcombe Regis
  • Silybum Marianum Gaertn. Seaton.
  • Menyanthes trifoliata L. Lympstone, Budleigh Salterton, Venn Ottery.
  • Cuscuta Epithymum Murr. Salcombe Regis.
  • Anchusa sempervirens L. Sidmouth.
  • Datura Stramonium L. Sidbury.
  • Verbascum Blattaria L. Salcombe Regis.
  • Antirrhinum orontium L. Sidbury.
  • Mentha rotundifolia L. Sidbury.
  • Thymus Serpyllum L. Salcombe Regis.
  • Verbena officinalis L. Sidmouth.
  • Euphorbia Peplis L. Seaton (Rev. W. S. Hore), Exmouth (Hudson). There is, however, no recent record for this district.
  • Myrica Gale L. Luppitt (Miss Burges).
  • Pinus sylvestris L. Lympstone.
  • Orchis morio L. Sidmouth.
  • Iris foetidissima L. Lympstone, Axminster.
  • Narthecium ossifragum Huds. Salcombe Regis.
  • Rynchospora alba Vahl. Shute.
  • Carex vulpina L. Lympstone.
  • C. divulsa Stokes. Lympstone.
  • C. leporina L. Lympstone.
  • C. pendula Huds. Littleham and Exmouth, Axminster.
  • C. extensa Good. Littleham and Exmouth.
  • C. helodes Link. Lympstone.
  • C. hirta L. Harpford, Salcombe Regis.
  • Glyceria aquatica Wahlb. Axminster, Budleigh Salterton.
  • Calamagrostis epigejos Roth. Sidmouth (Mr. E. M. Holmes).
  • Asplenium marinum L. Exmouth.
  • Haplomitrium Hookeri Nees. Woodbury (Mr. A. S. Horne).
  • Geaster rufescens Pers. Uplyme.

6. Torquay Botanical District

  • Cardamine trifolia L. Dartmouth (Mrs. Baker).
  • Thlaspi arvense L. Torquay (Miss C. L. Peck).
  • Teesdalia nudicaulis Br. Bovey Tracey (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Viola calcarea Greg. Torquay (Miss C. L. Peck).
  • Drosera longifolia L. Bovey Tracey.
  • Polycarpon tetraphyllum L. Kingswear (Mr. E. M. Holmes).
  • Scleranthus annuus L. Moretonhampstead.
  • Malva rotundifolia L. Torquay (Miss C. L. Peck).
  • Hypericum elatum Dryand. Torquay.
  • H. hirsutum L. Chudleigh, Churston Ferrers (Mr. E. M. Holmes).
  • Geranium pratense L. Kingswear (Mrs. Baker).
  • G. Robertianum L., var. purpureum Forst. Torquay (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • G. Robertianum L., var. modestum Jord. Drewsteignton.
  • Ulex minor Roth. Bovey Tracey.
  • Medicago denticulata Willd. Wolborough.
  • Melilotus alba Desr. Chudleigh.
  • Vicia sylvatica L. Kingsteignton.
  • Acaena Sanguisorbae Vahl. Bovey Tracey.
  • Potentilla norvegica L. Bovey Tracey (Miss C. L. Peck).
  • Pyrus rupicola Syme. St. Mary Church.
  • Carum verticillatum Koch. Moretonhampstead.
  • Bupleurum opacum Lange. Torquay (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Silaus flavescens Bernh. Trusham, Chudleigh.
  • Myrrhis Odorata Scop. Chagford (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Sambucus Ebulus L. St. Mary Church, Staverton.
  • Gnaphalium sylvaticum L. Chagford.
  • Senecio Cineraria DC. Torquay (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Carduus acaulos L. Kingskerswell (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Lactuca muralis Gaertn. Lustleigh.
  • Legousia hybrida Delabr. Moretonhampstead, Trusham, Ilsington.
  • Centaurion pulchellum Druce. Bovey Tracey, Trusham, Chudleigh.
  • Echium violaceum L. Kingswear (Mrs. Baker).
  • Hyoscyamus niger L. Bovey Tracey, Kingswear, Tormoham.
  • Verbascum Lychnitis L. Staverton.
  • V. nigrum L. Moretonhampstead (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Linaria spuria Mill. Teignmouth, Trusham, St. Mary Church.
  • L. minor Desf. Bovey Tracey.
  • Sibthorpia europaea L. Holne, Dartmouth.
  • Mimulus moschatus Dougl. South Tawton.
  • M. Langsdorfii Donn. Moretonhampstead and Chagford (Mr. C. W. Priestley).
  • Mentha spicata L. Dunsford.
  • M. rotundifolia Huds. Paignton.
  • Salvia Verbenaca L. Trusham.
  • S. Verbenaca L., subsp. S. clandestina L. Torquay (Mr. H. W. Pugsley).
  • Clinopodium Acinos O. Kuntze. Torquay (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Leonurus Cardiaca L. Lustleigh.
  • Galeopsis Ladanum L. Moretonhampstead, Trusham, Chudleigh.
  • Pinguicula lusitanica L. Bovey Tracey, Hennock.
  • Utricularia vulgaris L. Teignmouth (Miss H. Saunders).
  • Primula veris L. St. Mary Church, Cockington.
  • Lysimachia vulgaris L. Staverton, Hennock.
  • Anagallis foemina Mill. Trusham.
  • Plantago Timbali Jord. Wolborough, Trusham.
  • P. media L. St. Mary Church.
  • Chenopodium polyspermum L. Hennock.
  • C. murale L. St. Mary Church, Teignmouth.
  • Salix fragilis L. Chudleigh, Chagford, Trusham.
  • S. alba L. Chudleigh.
  • S. repens L. Chudleigh, Bovey Tracey, Hennock.
  • S. repens L., var. S. prostrata Sm. Chudleigh.
  • Romulea Columnae Seb. & Maur. Dawlish. Mr. C. W. Priestley writes that this plant has been carefully searched for during four seasons on Dawlish Warren; not found, and apparently sacrificed to golf and bungalows; the warren is now much overtrodden (29 May, 1909).
  • Galanthus nivalis L. Moretonhampstead, Trusham.
  • Alisma ranunculoides L. Kingsteignton.
  • Polygonatum multiflorum All. Drewsteignton.
  • Ruscus aculeatus L. North Bovey, Trusham.
  • Allium vineale L., var. A. compactum Thuill. Trusham, Chudleigh.
  • Luzula Forsteri DC. Dunsford, Trusham.
  • Sparganium simplex Huds. Moretonhampstead, Hennock.
  • Ruppia maritima L. Paignton.
  • Rynchospora alba Vahl, var. sordida. Hennock.
  • Eleocharis multicaulis Sm. Bovey Tracey, Hennock.
  • Scirpus cespitosus L. Bovey Tracey, Hennock.
  • S. nanus Spreng. Wolborough.
  • S. fluitans L. Bovey Tracey, Hennock.
  • S. setaceus L. Bovey Tracey.
  • Carex pulicaris L. Hennock.
  • C. Boenninghauseniana Weihe. Wolborough (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • C. leporina L. Moretonhampstead, Dunsford.
  • C. Goodenovii Gay. Trusham, Bovey Tracey.
  • C. pallescens L. Trusham, Ilsington.
  • C. pendula Huds. Moretonhampstead.
  • C. hirta L. Moretonhampstead, Trusham, Chudleigh, Teigngrace.
  • Festuca Myuros L. Moretonhampstead, Hennock.
  • F. pratensis Huds., var. F. loliacea Huds. Moretonhampstead.
  • Serrafalcus secalinus Bab. Newton Abbot.
  • Equisetum maximum Lam. Chudleigh.
  • E. limosum L. Teigngrace.
  • Cryptogramma crispa Br., Polypodium Phegopteris L., P. Dryopteris L. Ashburton, 1896 (Miss H. Saunders).
  • Lastrea aemula Brack. Hennock.
  • Asplenium lanceolatum Huds. Chagford, Hennock, Torquay, Ashburton.
  • A. septentrionale G. F. Hofim. Between Chudleigh and Dartmoor (Rev. H. Roberts).
  • Ceterach officinarum DC. Abbotsbickington, Trusham, Chudleigh, Denbury.
  • Hymenophyllum tunbridgense Sm. Manaton, Ashburton (Miss H. Saunders).
  • H. peltatum Desv. Ashburton (Miss H. Saunders).
  • Osmunda regalis L. Drewsteignton (9 June, 1909), Hennock.
  • Botrychium Lunaria Sw. Ashburton (Miss H. Saunders).
  • Lycopodium inundatum L. Hennock.
  • Nitella translucens Ag. Hennock.
  • Chara fragilis Desv. Hennock.
  • Schistostega osmundacea Mohr. Near Ashburton (Mr. C. E. Robinson).
  • Marchesinia Mackaii Gray. Torquay (Miss C. E. Larter).

The following note has been contributed by Dr. H. Humphreys :—

During the past winter, in accordance with the scheme of the Torquay Natural History Society, I have taken in hand the examination of the mosses in the district comprised between the estuaries of the Dart and Teign, the intermediate sea coast, and the railway between Newton and Totnes.

In consequence of its arbitrary limitations the district lacks most of the moorland and bog species of the county; but its varied geological beds, comprising grits, slates, shale, limestone of the Devonian Formation, the clays and breccias of the New Red Sandstone, give origin to a considerable variety of habitats for other species. The most interesting parts of the district, as far as mosses are concerned, are the cliffs between Maidencombe and Hope’s Nose, the cliffs at Meadfoot, at Berry Head, the inland limestone cliffs as at Chapel Hill, the shaded lanes and the deep valleys of Cockington and of Greenway on the banks of the Dart, the wooded slopes and stream on the domain of Berry Pomeroy, and the gravelly heath at Milber Down.

The following are a few notes on the district :—

At Babbacombe the cliffs are singularly varied owing to great disturbance of the beds, accompanied by intrusion of igneous rocks. Here the mosses have contributed largely to the beauty of the landscape, decorating the bare surfaces of the limestone with large conspicuous tufts of Neckera crispa, Hypnum molluscum, and Trichostomum crispulum. On descending, we find half-way down to the shore a shady spot overarched by sycamore trees, and here in the background, where several springs emerge, the surface of the rocks is clothed with a magnificent growth of Amblystegium filicinum and Pellia epiphylla, and bordered with Vaucheria, Mnium undulatum, and hart’s-tongue ferns. Much calcareous matter has been collected round the Amblystegium and Pellia, forming a loose but thick tufa over a large area.

Descending to the shore at Babbacombe, springs are seen to issue from the face of the cliff just where the limestone beds rest upon the slates. Here the Weisia verticillata has covered large surfaces of wet rock with handsome velvet-like cushions of a deep green colour. Associated with it and contrasted by its dingy brown colour are cushions of Barbula tophacea. On section, it is seen that in the cushions of Weisia verticillata the moss is only green at the top, whilst the rest of the plant is of a yellowish colour and is largely incrusted with carbonate of lime, which in most places has formed a soft friable tufa looking like bran, but in some parts it has consolidated into a cement of stony hardness.

Pfeffer, in his Physiology of Plants, Vol. I, p. 132, makes reference to the incrustations formed on these plants. His words are: “In many mosses Eucladium verticillatum, Trichostomum tophaceum, here growing in water rich in bicarbonate of lime, the incrustation is formed but little more actively than it is on dead objects, the living plant hence playing an almost passive part. In this respect it differs from incrustations on Algae, which apparently are mainly due to the activity of the plant itself, for under similar conditions it is only one particular species that becomes covered with chalk”.

The decorative effect of mosses is again seen in the picturesque little cascade at Maidencombe. Here a little stream making its way through the combe in a bed of Watcombe clay falls for about 20 feet over the vertical face of brecciated sandstone rock, which is beautifully draped with Eurynchium rusciforme var. atlanticum, Amblystegium filicinum var., together with the alga Cladophora glomerata, whilst Weisia verticillata and Barbula tophacea, aided by grasses and horsetails, contribute much to the beauty of the border.

At Berry Pomeroy the wooded slopes with their rich humus are the homes of beautiful mosses like Pterygophyllum lucens and various species of Mnium; whilst in the running stream at the base wave the long ribbons of the magnificent Fontinalis antipyretica. Other large and conspicuous mosses in this neighbourhood are Anomodon viticulosus, Thuidium tamariscinum, Eurynchium rusciforme, and Porotrichum alopecurum.

Lastly, on the gravelly heath of Milber Down we come upon another association of mosses, amongst which the following may be specially mentioned: Polytrichum juniperinum, Leucobryum glaucum, Bartramia pomiformis, and Hylocomium splendens.

7. Plymouth Botanical District

  • Aquilegia vulgaris L. Buckfastleigh (Mr. C. W. Priestley).
  • Papaver Argemone L. Plymstock, Thurlestone, Revelstoke.
  • Brassica Briggsii H. C. Wats. Wembury.
  • Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Totnes.
  • Lepidium campestre Br. Plymouth, Plympton St. Mary, Wembury.
  • L. ruderale L. Plymstock.
  • Reseda alba L. Plymouth.
  • Drosera longifolia L. Cornwood.
  • Saponaria Vaccaria L. Devonport (Mr. G. C. Druce).
  • Silene anglica L. Ermington, Ivybridge.
  • Hypericum montanum L. Brixton, Kingston.
  • H. hircinum L. Holbeton.
  • Geranium versicolor L. Plymstock, Yealmpton, Dittisham.
  • G. pusillum L. Holbeton.
  • Medicago arabica Huds. Plymstock, Newton Ferrers, Ermington.
  • Melilotus Petitpierreana Hayne. Brixton, Wembury.
  • Trifolium striatum L. Plymouth, Revelstoke.
  • T. scabrum L. Revelstoke, Kingston, Ringmore.
  • T. filiforme L. Revelstoke, Kingston.
  • Trigonella ornithopodioides DC. Wembury.
  • Lathyrus sylvestris L. Revelstoke, Holbeton.
  • Spiraea Filipendula L. Kingston.
  • Pyrus communis L. Holbeton.
  • P. torminalis Ehrh. Plymstock, Brixton.
  • Viburnum Lantana L. Kingston, Plympton St. Mary.
  • Galium Cruciata Scop. Brixton, Kingston, Ermington.
  • G. tricorne Stokes. Thurlestone.
  • Valeriana dioica L. Totnes.
  • Valerianella carinata Loisel. Brixton, Holbeton.
  • Gnaphalium sylvaticum L. Cornwood.
  • Centaurea Cyanus L. Holbeton.
  • Crepis taraxacifolia Thuill. Ivybridge.
  • C. setosa Hall. Holbeton, Modbury.
  • Gentiana baltica Murb. Cornwood.
  • Cuscuta Trifolii Bab. Revelstoke, Newton Ferrers, Wembury.
  • Lathraea Squamaria L. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. Humphreys).
  • Linaria spuria Mill. Plymstock, Newton Ferrers.
  • L. minor Desf. Brixton.
  • Mimulus Langsdorffii Donn. Totnes (Mr. C. W. Priestley).
  • Lithospermum arvense L. Plymstock.
  • Orobanche major L. Ivybridge.
  • O. Hederae Duby. Kingston.
  • Mentha longifolia Huds. Revelstoke.
  • M. spicata L. Modbury.
  • M. piperita L. Wembury.
  • M. rubra Sm. Plymstock.
  • M. gentilis L. Cornwood.
  • Clinopodium Acinos O. Kuntze. Revelstoke.
  • Nepeta Cataria L. Wembury.
  • Lamium amplexicaule L. Kingston.
  • Leonurus Cardiaca L. Brixton (Polwhele).
  • Stachys palustris L., var. S. ambigua Sm. Newton Ferrers, Cornwood, Totnes.
  • Marrubium vulgare L. Wembury.
  • Verbena officinalis L. Revelstoke; “a nuisance to the agriculturist”. (T. R. Archer Briggs.)
  • Primula veris L. Cornwood.
  • Anagallis coerulea Sm. Newton Ferrers.
  • Plantago media L. Wembury.
  • Littorella uniflora Aschers. Plympton St. Mary.
  • Chenopodium Vulvaria L. Ivybridge.
  • Rumex rupestris L. Wembury.
  • R. acutus L. Revelstoke, Newton Ferrers, Kingston.
  • Callitriche intermedia Hoffm. Cornwood.
  • Salix fragilis L. Brixton, Ringmore, Ermington.
  • S. alba L. Brixton.
  • S. ferruginea Anders. Yealmpton.
  • S. ferruginea, var. b. rugosa (Leefe). Holbeton.
  • Myrica Gale L. Cornwood.
  • Gymnadenia conopsea Br. Plympton St. Mary.
  • Habenaria viridis Br. Plympton St. Mary.
  • Alisma ranunculoides L. Thurlestone (Rev. E. S. Marshall).
  • Butomus umbellatus L. Slapton (Miss C. E. Larter).
  • Zostera marina L. Plymouth.
  • Rynchospora alba Vahl. Cornwood.
  • Eleocharis multicaulis Sm. Cornwood, Ivybridge, Kingsbridge.
  • Scirpus Tabernaemontani Gmel. Plymouth, Holbeton, Totnes, Thurlestone.
  • S. cespitosus L. Cornwood.
  • S. setaceus L. Cornwood, Ivybridge.
  • Eriophorum vaginatum L. Cornwood.
  • Carex pallescens L. Cornwood, Ivybridge.
  • C. pendula Huds. Ermington, Yealmpton, Totnes.
  • C. extensa Good. Plymouth, Revelstoke, Holbeton, Kingsbridge, Salcombe.
  • C. punctata Good. Holbeton, in July, 1875.
  • C. helodes Link. Ivybridge.
  • C. Pseudo-cyperus L. Plympton St. Mary.
  • C. hirta L. Wembury, Revelstoke, Kingston.
  • C. acutiformis Ehrh. Brixton.
  • C. riparia Curt. Plymouth, Thurlestone.
  • Calamagrostis epigejos Roth. Kingston.
  • Agrostis setacea Curt. Plympton St. Mary, Harford.
  • A. canina. L. Wembury, Cornwood.
  • Avena fatua L. Wembury, Kingston, Holbeton.
  • A. strigosa Schreb. Wembury, Cornwood.
  • A. pubescens Huds. Yealmpton.
  • Poa compressa L. Newton Ferrers.
  • Glyceria plicata Fr. Ringmore, Ermington.
  • Sclerochloa Borreri Bab. Plymstock.
  • S. distans Bab. Plymstock.
  • S. loliacea Woods. Wembury, Newton Ferrers, Holbeton.
  • Serrafalcus secalinus Bab. Yealmpton.
  • S. racemosus Parl. Ermington.
  • S. commutatus Bab. Wembury.
  • S. arvensis Godr. Devonport.
  • Triticum junceum L. Ringmore, Holbeton.
  • Hordeum nodosum L. Plymouth.
  • H. murinum Huds. Revelstoke.
  • Lolium italicum A. Br. Brixton, Yealmpton, Holbeton.
  • L. temulentum L., var. L. arvense With. Brixton.
  • Lepturus filiformis Trin. Brixton.
  • Polypodium Phegopteris L. Cornwood.
  • P. Dryopteris L. Cornwood, Harford.
  • Lastrea aemula Brack. Cornwood, Ivybridge, Holbeton.
  • Polystichum aculeatum Roth. Ivybridge, Ermington.
  • Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. Cornwood.
  • Asplenium lanceolatum Huds. Cornwood.
  • A. marinum L. Plymouth, Kingston, etc.
  • Ceterach officinarum DC. Yealmpton, Ivybridge, Ermington, Modbury.
  • Hymenophyllum tunbridgense Sm. Cornwood, Ivybridge.
  • H. peltatum Desv. Ivybridge.
  • Osmunda regalis L. Plympton St. Mary, Cornwood, Ivybridge.
  • Botrychium Lunaria Sw. Plympton St. Mary.
  • Ophioglossum vulgatum L. Plympton St. Mary, Cornwood.
  • Lycopodium Selago L. Plympton St. Mary.
  • Nitella opaca Ag. Plymouth.
  • Chara contraria Kuetz. Brixton.
  • Orthotrichum Lyellii Hook. & Tayl. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. Humphreys).
  • Fontinalis antipyretica L. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. Humphreys).
  • Neckera complanata Hübn. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. Humphreys).
  • Anomodon viticulosus Hook. & Tayl. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. Humphreys).
  • Thuidium tamariscinum B. & S. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. Humphreys).

8. Tavistock Botanical District

  • Ranunculus arvensis L. Tavistock.
  • Helleborus viridis L. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Lepidium Draba L. Tavistock.
  • Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Beer Ferrers.
  • Pogygala serpyllacea Weihe, var. vincoides Chodat. Buckland Monachorum.
  • Dianthus Armeria L. St. Budeaux.
  • Saponaria officinalis L. Shaugh Prior.
  • Silene anglica L. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Polycarpon tetraphyllum L. St. Budeaux.
  • Hypericum montanum L. Shaugh Prior.
  • Geranium pratense L. Egg Buckland.
  • G. Robertianum L., var. purpureum (Forst.). Beer Ferrers.
  • Erodium moschatum L’Herit. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Millegrana Radiola Druce. Buckland Monachorum.
  • Trifolium filiforme L. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Anthyllis Vulneraria L. Tamerton Foliott, Tavistock.
  • Vicia tetrasperma Moench. Lifton.
  • Prunus Cerasus L. Buckland Monachorum, Egg Buckland.
  • Sanguisorba officinalis L. Walkhampton, Tavistock.
  • Poterium Sanguisorba L. Beer Ferrers, Tamerton Foliott.
  • Alchemilla vulgaris L. Buckland Monachorum, Walkhampton.
  • Comarum palustre L. Tavistock.
  • Rubus saxatilis L. Whitchurch.
  • Geum rivale L. Buckland Monachorum.
  • Tillaea muscosa L. Egg Buckland.
  • Chaerophyllum Anthriscus Lam. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Valerianella carinata Lois. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Anthemis arvensis L. Tavistock.
  • Chrysanthemum segetum L. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Centaurea Cyanus L. Tavistock.
  • Silybum Marianum Gaertn. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Leontodon hispidus L. Buckland Monachorum.
  • Tragopogon porrifolius L. Beer Ferrers.
  • Campanula rotundifolia L. Beer Ferrers.
  • Menyanthes trifoliata L. Whitchurch.
  • Polemonium coeruleum L. Tamerton Foliott
  • Pulmonaria officinalis L. Tavistock.
  • Lithospermum arvense L. Tamerton Foliott.
  • Orobanche minor Sm. Egg Buckland.
  • Verbascum Blattaria L. Tavistock.
  • Mimulus Langsdorffii Donn. Marystow.
  • Lasiopera viscosa Hoffm. Tavistock.
  • Euphrasia Vigursii F. H. Davey. Buckland Monachorum, Lydford.
  • Veronica scutellata L. Egg Buckland, Buckland Monachorum, Tavistock.
  • V. montana L. Tamerton Foliott, Tavistock.
  • Mentha piperita L. Tamerton Foliott, Egg Buckland, Tavistock.
  • Clinopodium Calamintha O. Kuntze. Shaugh Prior, Tavistock.
  • C. Acinos O. Kuntze. Tamerton Foliott, Egg Buckland.
  • Galeopsis Ladanum L. Tavistock.
  • Salix pentandra L. Lydford.
  • Orchis pyramidalis L. Tavistock.
  • Eleocharis multicaulis Sm. Tavistock.
  • Scirpus fluitans L. Tavistock.
  • Polypodium Phegopteris L. Dartmoor (W. Burt), Sheepstor, Meavy, Shaugh Prior, Peter Tavy, Sampford Spiney.
  • P. Dryopteris L. Lydford.
  • Lastrea spinulosa Presl. Whitchurch, Bickleigh.
  • L. aemula Brack. Bickleigh, Shaugh Prior, Sheepstor, Whitchurch.
  • Asplenium lanceolatum Huds. Whitchurch, Buckland Monachorum, Tavistock, Shaugh Prior, Peter Tavy.
  • A. viride Huds. Peter Tavy (this record is doubtful). See Journ. Bot., 1872, p. 58.
  • Ceterach officinarum DC. Werrington.
  • Hymenophyllum tunbridgense Sm. Shaugh Prior, Bickleigh, Sheepstor.
  • H. peltatum Desv. Lydford, Bickleigh, Shaugh Prior.
  • Osmunda regalis L. Bickleigh, Tavistock, Lifton, etc.; disappearing from many of its former stations.
  • Isoëtes lacustris L. Shaugh Prior.
  • Geaster lageniformis Vitt. Beer Ferrers (collected and sent by Sir A. Croft, December, 1908).