Inspired by Devon
A collection of short pieces contributed by our members on topics related to Devon that have inspired them. You can contribute too. Just email your piece to firstname.lastname@example.org together with an optional photo. We reserve the right to edit pieces and will consider copyright and privacy issues (e.g. if the photos include identifiable people).
This page was itself inspired by Sue Andrew’s series of 25 pieces entitled “From the Chair”, which ran from April to October 2020; her future contributions will now be included as part of this work, starting with No. 1 “Repair” below. You can see Sue’s earlier pieces here.
10. Fascinating fungi
In a former life I was a pixie and danced around a toadstool with other little people singing at the top of my voice. Lest anyone should think I am having an Alice in Wonderland moment, I should confess that this was fifty-five years ago, and I was a fully-paid-up member of the Brownies. At the end of our revelry, we each placed our dues (a threepenny-bit) under the toadstool – a large wooden affair, painted to resemble a red and white Fly Agaric.
I’ve had a fascination with fungi, and their depiction, ever since, though my pixie days (sadly) are long gone. Neither plant nor animal, fungi occupy a kingdom of their own, with the art of these extraordinary organisms celebrated recently in an exhibition at Somerset House in London: Mushrooms, The Art, Design and Future of Fungi. Although I didn’t manage to get to the exhibition, its catalogue reminded me of the interest of Beatrix Potter whose studies of fungi were made manifest in over 300 watercolours between 1888 and 1897.
While these works are exquisite in their accuracy and detail, part of the appeal of fungi for me is their aroma, and that of the damp woodlands that they inhabit. And how can even the most skilful of artists replicate the shafts of light which slice through shattered branches illuminating wonderfully diverse forms emerging from mossy banks and piles of rotting timber?
Recent forays above Burrator and near Bradstone reminded me of John Ruskin’s statement that ‘You will never love art well until you love what she mirrors better’. With museums and art galleries closed once again, what could be better than an autumn walk in the woods with its wealth of weird and wonderful beauties on display? Last month I found several Fly Agaric, and fungi whose colours seemed to shift with the changing skies. But beware, edible and poisonous can be very similar in appearance, and mistakes can be fatal. I prefer to look but not touch.
The complexity of fungi, their place in the social network of trees, their vulnerability to climate change, and their role in limiting it, are the subjects of serious scientific study. Yet even if one’s understanding of fungi is somewhat limited, as mine undoubtedly is, these fruiting bodies of the mycelium are both fascinating and fabulous. While they may no longer make me dance and sing, my interest in fungi remains undiminished.
Thanks to Nicola Bacciu (Recorder, fungi and lichens for South Devon) for the identifications.
9. A jewel in an exquisite setting
In the summer of 2010 I found myself on the western edge of Exmoor looking at work done by the Exmoor National Park Authority designed to “rewet” areas of moorland where previous drainage operations had damaged the wild vegetation. On the high ground between Bray Common and Squallacombe I took a photograph of a little patch of bog in which the very rare Cranberry, Vaccinium Oxycoccus, was growing. This image is a constant reminder of the splendour of our moorland and, as John Clare reminds us in his poem “The Heath”, “Where beauty and harmony be.”
A footnote : A New Flora of Devon” describes the plant as “Very rare. Native. Very wet heaths, usually amongst sphagnum. Lost from some of the old sites but discovered in some new ones in recent years on both Dartmoor and Exmoor.
8. Volcanoes and Viruses
One impact of the coronavirus pandemic has been a massive reduction in the number of trans-Atlantic flights, and for some time in the middle of 2020 we became used to clear blue skies devoid of white vapour trails (contrails) produced by jets flying at high altitude. It reminded me of another incident with a widespread, though not global, impact ten years ago. On April 13th 2010 few people in the UK had heard of Eyjafjallajökull – a small glacier-covered volcano on Iceland. The following day it erupted and sent a plume of volcanic ash several kilometres into the atmosphere, closing much of European airspace and disrupting air travel for six days. We knew its name then – though few mastered its pronunciation.
During the day there were no obvious signs of ash in the sky over the UK and little ash was deposited at ground level over the following days and weeks, but there were some spectacular sunsets viewable from all over Devon. For a few days the skies were clear of contrails…then normal service was resumed.
The halo around the sun, the orange-red colour of the sky and stratified clouds were typical of the ash-affected sunsets. Photograph taken at Haldon Gate near Doddiscombsleigh on 18th April 2010 at 20.01h.
7. Tuckers Hall
Earlier this year, on the 3rd August 2020, 400 years after the granting of the Royal Charter by King James I allowing the Weavers, Fullers and Shearmen of the City of Exeter to become an Incorporation, five members of the Guild gathered in their ceremonial robes outside Tuckers Hall with the original charter, on loan for the day from the South West Heritage Trust where it is currently housed.
Over the years my husband and I have enjoyed the privilege of dining at Tuckers Hall on a number of occasions. Standing at the lower end of Fore Street, the hall is passed on a daily basis by a constant stream of residents and visitors and yet is one of the least well known buildings of the city and rarely even given a cursory glance.
After the Normal Conquest in 1066, one of Britain’s main economies was in the export of wool. As the Fleece Dor, the Golden Fleece, one of the prominent features on the coat of arms of Tavistock and that of my former school, recalls the importance of that trade to the town, so Tuckers Hall built in 1471 is the prominent survivor of the years when the members of this historic guild met to regulate the woollen cloth trade which made Exeter at times the third richest city in the country and Tuckers Hall one of its most important and significant buildings.
The Guild still functions today and is one of the few Worshipful Companies existing outside the City of London. The comparatively modest exterior of the building belies the splendour and opulence of its glittering upper chamber where for centuries the members have regularly held their meetings. Outstanding features include its magnificent dark Jacobean panelling and grand oak table, an original barrel vaulted ceiling with carved ribs and decorative painted bosses, and a number of stunning stained glass windows.
A hidden gem, an inspiration to all who treasure the riches of our county and a building reflecting its rich and diverse culture.
Photos courtesy of Antony T. Buller.
6. Apostles and Lions…in Devon?
Around thirteen years ago I attended a talk at Mamhead Village Hall delivered by Exeter School Archivist Kevin White. It was one of the topics in his talk “Aspects of Exeter” that caught my imagination. He mentioned the Exeter Assay Office (which closed in 1883) and at the end of his talk, over tea and biscuits, he exhibited, amongst other things, a collection of forks, spoons, sugar nips and other items all punched with Exeter assay marks for everyone to admire. That was it. I was hooked on silver flatware.
It’s not just the beauty of what are considered by most, let’s face it, as mundane domestic functional objects, it’s the evolution of their shape and form – from Hanoverian dognoses and trefids with beaded rat-tails and double drop bowls – to English bright cut and other, elaborately engraved, designs. Assay marks often reveal the object’s maker (or retailer) and the year of its manufacture, but who commissioned it, or purchased and owned the piece? Occasionally, monograms, inscriptions or heraldic designs suggest their ownership, but it is anonymous initials pricked into the stem, bowl or terminal of some spoons – perhaps commemorating a wedding, a christening or other significant event, that I find particularly appealing.
Currently, I’m interested in early spoons made by West Country silversmiths, with seal tops, or with evocative terminals – Apostles, acorn knops, and splendid Lion sejants (pictured). The latter finial adorns an Elizabethan spoon, originally gilded, dating to c.1590 marked C ESTON (Christopher Easton). Easton was an Exeter maker – living in and around St Mary Arches – who trained as an apprentice under John Jones – regarded as one of Exeter’s most important and successful goldsmiths. Holding this spoon – made a decade or more before Guy Fawkes made a name for himself – transports me to sixteenth-century Exeter and I marvel at its creation by a skilled craftsman in a poorly illuminated workshop and wonder how it has survived many hands over four centuries.
If I hadn’t attended that talk in a chilly rural Devon building it’s unlikely that I would have been introduced to spoons as objects of art and historical intrigue and I wouldn’t have been inspired to learn more about them and their makers.
5. Bovey’s Potter Wasps
Professor Charles Tyler, of Exeter University’s Biosciences Department, has just sent me this lovely photograph of a Potter Wasp, Eumenes coarctatus, taken by him recently at Bovey Heathfield. These gorgeous small wasps make exquisite little pots out of mud and stock them with up to 38 small caterpillars for their larvae to feed on. John Walters, a member of the Entomology Section, has been studying them at Bovey for several years and has posted a superb series of time-lapse video clips on the Bees, Wasps and Ants Recording Society web site (bwars.com), of the wasps building and stocking the pots. Lots more information there. Strongly recommended.
4. The Golden-ringed Dragonfly
Dragonflies are fascinating insects – large, glamorous, amazingly skilful aerial predators, with complex, racy behaviour, full of sex and violence and belonging well after the 9 pm watershed. One of Devon’s most spectacular is Cordulegaster boltonii, the Golden-ringed Dragonfly. Its larvae live in acid streams and upland rivers, so one can find it on Dartmoor, typically between June and August. It is very handsome but slightly intimidating – long and slender, striped in yellow and black like a wasp, and the female has a long ovipositor that looks like a sting. A dialect word for dragonflies is ‘horse-stingers’ – a quite unjustified slur.
Dragonfly females lay their eggs in various ways, but Cordulegaster is unusual and fun to watch. The female hovers low over the stream for minutes on end, with its body vertical, bobbing up and down like a pogo-stick, dipping its ovipositor repeatedly into the water. I recorded this video-clip on a joint Entomology Section/British Dragonfly Society field trip to Prewley Moor, near Sourton, on August 4 2019. Enjoy.
3. A diminutive magician on Dartmoor
Over there beyond those rocks, yes about seventy yards away, I swear that I saw a flash of brown. Damn, whatever it was has disappeared. No, there it is again ! And flying fast, very fast, almost level with the gorse and heather, wings beating interspersed with occasional glides. Streamlined shape with dark brown upperparts and pointed wings the little magician heads eastwards almost in a straight line until I lose sight of it over the brow of the hill.
That was a minute of sheer excitement for I have just seen one of Devon’s rarest birds, a female Merlin.
2. Urban Flora
For many, the ‘lockdown’ of the first half of this year has led to an increased appreciation of our urban wildlife, including the flowers of roadsides and the less closely tended parts of our towns and cities. The reduction in herbicide spraying by local councils undoubtedly helped, allowing many plants to grow to maturity that would otherwise have succumbed to our desire for tidiness. By happy coincidence, we are at the same time seeing the rise of a spontaneous movement that aims to encourage the public to recognise the wild plants on their doorsteps. Starting originally in Toulouse in France, all across the world botanists (amateur and professional alike) are now setting out, equipped with chalk, to mark on paths and pavements the names of the species they find growing there so that passers-by can learn a little of the floral diversity that surrounds them. Plymouth has its own group of ‘Rebel Botanists’, who you can find on Facebook and Twitter as well as in the streets and parks of the city (their chalking activities are supported by the city council in case you were concerned!)
I’ve long had a fascination with our urban flora, not just for the surprises it provides when I come across an unexpected botanical treasure as I walk the streets of Plymouth, but also for its very dynamic nature. I was excited to see the non-native grass Water Bent (Polypogon viridis) for the first time in the city in 2006, but now it often dominates our pavement flora and is widespread elsewhere in urban Devon. A more recent arrival is Four-leaved Allseed (Polycarpon tetraphyllum). I won’t lie, it’s not the most photogenic of species, but of course has its own beauty to those who love our wild plants. It’s actually a native, if rather rare, but has now started to increasingly appear in built up areas. It’s not clear if this is the native form or a continental variety that’s happier surviving in an urban setting, but either way, it’s definitely on the rise. I found it in Plymouth in 2019, not far from the city centre, the first local record since 1956, and have subsequently found it a second time close to where I live. I suspect it’s more widespread still, having been quietly setting up home in the city hidden from the eyes of curious botanists.
The future undoubtedly holds more changes for our urban flora. It’s difficult to be sure what species will appear next, but I have my suspicions. Argentine Vervain (Verbena bonariensis), a tall slender plant topped with a head of purple flowers, much loved by gardeners and insects alike, seeds prolifically and I often see young plants growing in gutters and at the bases of garden walls. It seems to be killed off by the cold of winter, but as the climate warms I wouldn’t be surprised to see it taking its place amongst the many other plant species that find a home in our towns and cities.
Coming home over the moor last week I stopped, by chance, to visit the church in Shaugh Prior. Many years ago I had come to photograph its font cover, but was disappointed with my images. Photographing woodwork in Devon’s churches is always a bit of a gamble. But this time low autumn sunlight streaming through the west window illuminated the carving beautifully – natural light is always best for woodwork as the depth of the carving is fully revealed. Although I only had a mobile phone with me, my pictures were what I hoped for.
The font cover at Shaugh Prior, a rare survivor from the pre-Reformation period, has an interesting tale to tell. A note in the church records that:
During the partial church restoration of 1867/68, Mr Edward Christian had the cover removed to the barn of a local farm. For several years the font cover lay neglected, indeed, several times the farmer’s wife suggested to her husband that the “rotten old thing should be burnt!”
Fortunately, through the auspices of the newly installed vicar, Reverend Strother, whose previous church had been St Mary Steps in Exeter, the cover came to the attention of ecclesiastical carver and sculptor Harry Hems, who paid a call to his friend in Shaugh Prior. The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette Daily Telegram, dated May 16th 1878, carries Hems’s account of the visit:
The most interesting part pertaining to the church is to be found in a neighbouring barn. It has been there for the last eleven years, just as I saw it yesterday, amidst oats, and chaff, and straw. It is a unique font-cover, made of oak, and quite eight feet high…It is Perpendicular Gothic [fifteenth century], and intended to stand as a fixture upon the font even during the rite of baptism. It opens very like a triptic (sic), and forms a baldachino as it were – a canopy right over the font, carved richly with ornament and figures, and terminating by a spire of pierced carved-work, having as its finial a sculptured figure of a bishop in full canonicals. This beautiful specimen of ecclesiastical art has been rotting for so many years that, without it is reverently cared for at once, it will be irretrievably lost to the church. I hope some good person will take the matter in hand, and should it be once again restored to its original place over the font, no church within a hundred-and-fifty miles will have so rare a piece of work of the sort within its walls as Shaugh Prior will possess.
Given Hems’s renowned powers of persuasion, and his friendship with the vicar, the work of restoration fell to him. Where possible the old fragments of carving were used and damaged figures repaired. Sadly the whitewashed surface of the woodwork was also cleaned. It is likely that the font cover was originally highly coloured and gilded, as in an exquisite example in Ufford, Suffolk, but removal of the whitewash took any traces of medieval polychromy with it. Nonetheless, recognition and repair of the font cover by Hems, a controversial figure whose character was not universally admired, undoubtedly saved this medieval marvel for future generations. Visit the church in the late afternoon of a bright autumn day and the craftsmanship of Hems in the nineteenth century, and anonymous carvers four hundred years earlier, simply shines.
22 October 2020
Unless otherwise stated, all the photos were taken by the respective authors.